When we contemplate the metaphors we have come across, we will discover that the sources of metaphors are often everyday experience and knowledge. The "figurative body" that people use as the source domain is often taken from the objects that we can see and are familiar with, and start a series of metaphorical reasoning from the surrounding things, which can lay the foundation for both the speaker and the listener. Through "experience", the abstract concept that you want to express can be more clearly explained/understood. 201311616331425 "The Grandmaster" movie stills｜Photo Credit: Zedong Films So, as heavy users of figurative rhetoric, how do humans identify the interrelated qualities of concepts? And are there any uses for metaphors? According to the book "Metaphors we live by" (Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M., 2008), metaphors can be roughly divided into three types.
First of all, Orientational metaphor means that the company banner design speaker is the center, and the spatial concepts such as "up-down" and "left-right" can be projected on emotions, body and other feelings. For example, Ye Wen spoke quietly about Kung Fu: "Kung Fu, two words. One horizontal and one vertical. Wrong, lie down!" At this time, "lie down" is not only used to compare the horizontal and vertical in the strokes of "Kung Fu", but also used to express the posture of falling to the ground when one side is defeated in a kung fu competition, which brings the loser to the lower position. The second is the ontological metaphor, in which we sometimes treat abstract thoughts, emotions, and mental states as tangible entities. For example, Ding Lianshan said to Gong Baosen: "When making soup, you need to pay attention to the heat. If the heat is not enough, it is difficult to swallow.
After the heat is over, things will burn." Although the preaching of martial arts practitioners can be seen in the words, through the use of metaphors in the lines, the attitudes of the characters appear deep and obscure. In "The Grand Master", Wong Kar-wai often places the "views of life" of different characters in the metaphorical relationship of the character's lines to concretize the character's attitude. Just like Ding Lianshan's seemingly unrestrained character in the whole film, and after going through martial arts wind and frost, he became the "lizi" in his own mouth. At this point, it is more appropriate for him to say the line "being in the world is like a man of fire".